November 14, 2022

Redevelopment Economics at RCRA Corrective Action Sites

Over 2020 and 2021, EPA collected data on the economic impacts of RCRA corrective action cleanups at 79 facilities. The RCRA corrective action program requires facilities with RCRA permits to clean up historical contamination. The agency has reviewed and published this data on its website. The agency estimates that the 79 facility cleanups it has profiled, a small portion of the over 4,000 facilities being cleaned up, have resulted in billions of dollars of positive economic impacts.

Completed cleanups have provided opportunities for a wide range of new developments like new neighborhoods, shopping centers, office buildings, hotels, restaurants, recreation areas, etc. In addition, cleanups often allow on-site businesses to continue operating while improving environmental conditions in the surrounding area. Among the facilities profiled, the agency found approximately 25% were located within communities with environmental justice concerns, and the cleanups have had a positive impact.

Each facility profile on the site highlights the economic benefits and other positive outcomes of a cleanup conducted under the RCRA corrective action program. EPA acknowledges the data it collected is a small subset of the over 4,000 facilities currently being cleaned up, but the agency suggests this indicates the total benefit from all cleanups is much greater than the billions of dollars documented by the data collected.


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This document addresses issues of a general nature related to the federal RCRA regulations. Persons evaluating specific circumstances dealing with the RCRA regulations should review state and local laws and regulations, which may be more stringent than federal requirements. In addition, the assistance of a qualified professional should be enlisted to address any site-specific circumstances.